The state lies at 23°83’N – 25°68’N latitude and 93°03’E – 94°78’E longitude. The total area of ​​the state is 22,327 square kilometers (8,621 sq mi). The capital lies at an elevation of 790 meters (2,590 ft) above sea level,  in an  oval-shaped valley of  approximately 700 square miles (2,000 km 2 ) surrounded by the Blue Mountains.

The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges create a moderate climate, preventing cold northerly winds from entering the valley and cyclonic storms.

The state is bordered by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, Assam to the west, and an international border with Myanmar to the east. The state has four major river basins: the Barak River Valley (Barak Valley) in the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the U River Basin in the east, and the U River Basin in the north. Lanye River Basin.

  The water resources of the Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 mham (million hectare meters). The total water balance of the state in the annual water budget is 0.7236 Mham. (In comparison, India receives 400 mm of rain per year. 

The Barak River, the largest in Manipur, originates in the hills of Manipur and is joined by tributaries such as Irang, Maku and Tuivai. After joining the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north, forms the border with the state of Assam and then enters Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur.

 The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding mountains.

Almost all the rivers in the basin are mature and thus deposit their sediments in the Loktak lake .The rivers flowing through the Manipur hills are relatively young, which flow through the hilly terrain. 

These rivers are corroded and overflow during monsoons. Important rivers draining the western part include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang and Lematak. The rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu river valley, include Chamu, Khunau and other small streams. 

Manipur can be distinguished as two distinct physical regions: an outer region of rugged hills and narrow valleys and an interior region of flat plains with all associated landforms. 

These two areas differ in physical features and are significant in flora and fauna. The flat surface of the valley region consists of hills and dunes. Loktak Lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area covered by all the lakes is about 600  km2  . 40 meters at Jiribam to Tempu Peak on the Nagaland border at an altitude of 2,994 meters.

Soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. Red ferruginous soil in the hills and silt in the valleys. Soils in the basin generally consist of clay, small rock fragments, sand and sandy loam and are varied.

 On plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is very thick. The soil on higher slopes is very thin. Soils on steep mountain slopes are subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. A normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8. 


The natural vegetation covers an area of ​​about 14,365 square kilometers (5,546 sq mi), about 64% of the state’s total geographical area, and consists of short and tall grasses, reeds and bamboos, and trees. Broadly, there are four types of forests: tropical semi-evergreen, dry temperate forest, subtropical pine and tropical moist deciduous.

There are teak, pine, oak, aningthu, lehao, bamboo and sugarcane forests. Rubber, tea, coffee, oranges and cardamom are cultivated in the hilly areas. Rice is the staple food of Manipuri people

The climate of Manipur largely influences the migration of the region. At an altitude of 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is surrounded by hills on all sides. This northeastern corner of India has a generally friendly climate, although winters can be cold. The maximum temperature during the summer months is 32 °C (90 °F). The coldest month is January and the warmest is July.

The state receives an average annual rainfall of 1,467.5 millimeters (57.78 in) between April and mid-October. Rainfall ranges from light drizzle to heavy rain. 

The capital Imphal receives an annual average of 933 millimeters (36.7 in). Rain falls in the region as the southwest monsoon picks up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and moves towards the eastern Himalayan ranges. This common pattern of rainfall in Manipur enriches the soil and many agricultural activities also depend on it.

Manipur is already experiencing climate change, especially with changes in climate, changes in rainfall and increasingly drastic changes in temperature. 


As of 2011 census, Manipur has a population of 2,855,794. Out of this total 57.2% people live in valley districts and remaining 42.8% live in hilly districts. The hills are inhabited mainly by Nagas, and Kukis, and small tribal communities, and the valleys (plains) are inhabited mainly by Meites and Pangals (Manipuri Muslims). Bishnupriya Manipuri, Naga and Kuki communities are also found in the valley region, though less in number. Manipur also has a large population of Nepalis, Bengalis, Tamils ​​and Marwaris.

Provisional figures for distribution of area, population and density and literacy rate as per 2001 census are as follows: 


See also: 

Manipur Tamil community and 

Manipuri Brahmin

Meitei (synonymous with Manipuri) and Pangal comprise the majority population of the state. In 1901, Meitei-Pangal was recorded as the main caste of Manipur. 

Nag and Kuki/Zo are the major tribal groups. Nagas in Manipur are further divided into sub-tribes such as Anal, Liangmai, Mao, Maram, Maring, Poumai, Rongmei, Tangkhul, Zeme etc. 


The official language is English.

The Meitei language (or  Manipuri  ) is the lingua franca of Manipur and is one of the languages ​​listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. Manipur has ethnic groups speaking various languages ​​and dialects, practicing Hinduism, Christianity, Sanmahism, Buddhism, Islam and other folk religions. 

Apart from being the language of the majority in Manipur, most of the North-East has a great deal of linguistic diversity. Almost all of these are Sino-Tibetan languages, with several distinct subgroups. There are several Kuki-Chin languages, the largest of which is Thadau. Another major language family is the Naga languages ​​like Tangkhul, Paula, Rongmei and Mao. Less than 5% speak Indo-European languages, mostly Nepali and Bengali, in their Sylheti dialect, which is the dominant language of Jiribam district.


The 2012–2013 gross state domestic product of Manipur was about ₹ 10,188 crore (US$1.3 billion) at market prices. Its economy is mainly based on agriculture, forestry, cottage industry and trade. Manipur serves as the “Eastern Gateway” of India through the cities of More and Tamu, a land route for trade between India and Burma and other countries in Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, the Arctic, Micronesia and Polynesia. Manipur has the highest number of handicraft units and the highest number of artisans in the North Eastern region of India. 


Manipur produced about 0.1 gigawatt-hour (0.36 TJ) of electricity in 2010 with its infrastructure. The state has hydroelectric generating capacity, estimated to be over 2 gigawatt-hours (7.2 TJ). By 2010, if half of this potential is realized, it is estimated that it will supply all residents with electricity 24/7, with surplus for sale, as well as supplying the Burma Power Grid. 


Manipur’s climate and soil conditions are suitable for horticultural crops. Rare and exotic medicinal and aromatic plants grow there. Some of the cash crops suitable for Manipur include litchi, cashew, walnut, orange, lemon, pineapple, papaya, passion fruit, peach, pear and plum. The state is covered by 3,000 square kilometers (1,200 sq mi) of bamboo forests, making it the largest contributor to India’s bamboo industry.

Agriculture in Manipur consists of many small farms, many of which are women. Climate change, especially changes in temperature and weather, are affecting smallholder farmers in the state. Like rural women in other parts of the world, agricultural women in Manipur are more vulnerable to climate change, as they have less access to support from local governments. 

Transport infrastructure

Tulihal Airport, the only airport of Changangi, Imphal, Manipur, directly connects Delhi, Kolkata, Guwahati and Agartala. It has been upgraded to an international airport. As the second largest airport in Northeast India, it serves as a major logistics hub for the Northeast states. Tulihal Airport has been renamed as Bir Tikendrajit Airport. National Highway NH-39 connects Manipur to the rest of the country via railway stations at Dimapur in Nagaland, 215 km (134 mi) from Imphal.

National Highway 53 (India) connects Manipur with another railway station at Silchar in Assam, which is 269 km (167 mi) from Imphal. Manipur’s road network of 7,170 km (4,460 mi) connects all important cities and distant villages. However, the condition of roads across the state is often deplorable. [91] [92]  In 2010, the Indian government announced that it was considering an Asian infrastructure network from Manipur to Vietnam. [93]  The proposed Trans-Asian Railway (TAR), if built, would pass through Manipur, connecting India to Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.


Main article: 

Tourism in Northeast India

October to February is the tourist season when it is often sunny without being hot and humid. Culture includes martial arts, dance, theater and sculpture. Green with moderate climate. Dzuko Valley in Ukhrul (District), Senapati, Sangai (Brown Antlered Deer) and floating islands in Loktak Lake are among the rare items in the area, the seasonal Shirui Lily plant. Polo, which can be called the royal game, originated in Manipur.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to top