State of Madhya Pradesh , India. As its name suggests – Madhya means “centre” and Pradesh means “region” or “state” – it is situated in the heart of the country. The state has no coastline and no international borders.
It is surrounded by the states of Uttar Pradesh on the northeast, Chhattisgarh on the southeast, Maharashtra on the south, Gujarat on the southwest and Rajasthan on the northwest. The capital is Bhopal, in the west-central part of the state. Area 119,016 sq mi (308,252 sq km). Pop (2011) 72,597,565.
Madhya Pradesh is situated in the transitional zone between the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the north and the Deccan Plateau in the south. Its geography is characterized by low hills, broad plateaus and river valleys.
State at a Glance
Madhya Pradesh with an area of 3,08,245 sq.km. It is the second largest state in India. It is located in central India. The state is bordered by Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south and Gujarat and Rajasthan to the west.
According to the 2011 census, the total population of Madhya Pradesh is 7.27 crore, of which males and females are 3.76 crore and 3.51 crore respectively. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes form a significant part of the state’s population and account for 15.54% and 21.04% of the total population respectively.
Hindi is the official language of Madhya Pradesh. There are several dialects including Bundeli, Bagheli, Nimari, Marathi, Sindhi, Urdu and Malvi. Many other dialects are spoken.
According to the 2011 census, 90.9% of the state’s residents follow Hinduism, while the others are Muslims (6.6%), Jains (0.8%), Buddhists (0.3%), Christians (0.3%), and Sikhs (0.2%).
Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the majority of the people in the state. Major crops of the state are soybean, wheat, paddy, sorghum, maize, gram, mustard, tur etc. Narmada, Tapti, Chambal, Betwa, Shipra, Tawa, Ken, Son, Penchrivers originate from the state.
Madhya Pradesh Hindi ; means Central Province ) is a state in Central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city with Jabalpur, Ujjain, Gwalior, Satna and Guna being the other major cities. Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in India by area and the fifth largest state by population with over 72 million inhabitants. It is bordered by Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west and Rajasthan to the northwest.
The area included in present-day Madhya Pradesh included the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avantika) emerged as a major city during the second wave of Indian civilization in the sixth century. After that the region was ruled by the major royal dynasties of India. In the 18th century, the Maratha Empire dominated.
After the Anglo-Maratha Wars of the 19th century, the region was divided into several principalities under British rule and included in the Madhya Pradesh and Berar and Central India Agencies.. After India’s independence, the state of Madhya Pradesh was created with Nagpur as its capital: the state included the southern part of present-day Madhya Pradesh and today’s Madhya Pradesh. The north-eastern part of Maharashtra was included. In 1956, the state was reorganized and parts of it merged with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh State, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha Pradesh was removed and merged with Bombay State.
The state was the largest state in India by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh region was designated as an independent state.
The economy of Madhya Pradesh is the 10th largest economy in India with a Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of ₹ 9.17 trillion (US$110 billion) and the 26th highest per capita income in the country at ₹ 109372. Madhya Pradesh ranks 23rd among states in India in the Human Development Index.
Rich in mineral wealth, Madhya Pradesh has India’s largest reserves of diamonds and copper. 25.14% area is under forest cover. Its tourism industry has grown significantly, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010-11. In recent years, the state’s GDP growth has been higher than the national average. In 2019-20, the state’s GSDP was recorded at 9.07.
Location in India
Madhya Pradesh literally means “central province” and is located in the geographical center of India between 21.6°N–26.30°N latitude and 74°9’E–82°48’E longitude. The Narmada river flows east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges; These mountain ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundaries between north and south India. The highest point in Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgad, with an elevation of 1,350 meters (4,429 ft).
The state is bordered by Gujarat to the west, Rajasthan to the northwest, Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the east and Maharashtra to the south.
Madhya Pradesh also has three major seasons – summer, monsoon and winter. In summer (March-June) temperature across the state is above 34.6 as it is the all-time high in Madhya Pradesh. In general, the eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh are hotter than the western parts. Regions like Gwalior, Morena and Datia record temperatures above 42°C in May.
Humidity is relatively low and the region usually experiences frequent mild dust storms. The southwest monsoon generally breaks in mid-June and the entire state receives heavy rainfall between June and September. South and Southeast regions receive more rainfall while North-West regions receive less rainfall. Mandla, Balaghat, Sidhi, Jabalpur and other extreme eastern areas receive more than 150 cm of rainfall.
Winter begins in November. Temperatures are lower in the northern parts of the state as compared to the southern parts. The daily maximum temperature in most northern parts of January remains between 15 and 18 °C. The climate is generally dry and pleasant with clear skies. Average rainfall is about 1,194 mm (47.0 in).
The southeastern districts receive the heaviest rainfall, with some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and northwestern districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.
As of 2011 data, the state’s recorded forest area is 94,689 km2 ( 36,560 sq mi) which is 30.7% of the state’s geographical area. This is 12.3% of India’s forest area. Legally the area is classified into “Reserved Forest” (65.3%), “Protected Forest” (32.8%) and “Unclassified Forest” (0.2%).
Per capita forest area is 2,400 m 2 (0.59 acres) compared to the national average of 700 m 2 (0.17 acres). Forest cover is less dense in the northern and western parts of the state, which have major urban centers.
Variability in climate and edaphic conditions leads to significant variation among forest types in the state. In January 2019, 1.5 million volunteers from the state planted 66 million trees in 12 hours along the Narmada River.
The major types of soil found in the state are as follows.
- Black soil, mainly in Malwa region, Mahakoshal and South Bundelkhand
- Red and yellow soil, Baghelkhand region
- Alluvial soil, North Madhya Pradesh
- In the highlands, laterite soil
- Mixed soil in some parts of Gwalior and Chambal Division
plants and animals
Flora and Fauna of Madhya Pradesh
There are ten national parks in Madhya Pradesh; Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpuda National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandala Plant Fossil National Park, Panna National Park, Pench National Park and Dinosaur National Park, Dhar.
There are many nature reserves including Amarkantak, Bagh Leni, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Ghariyal, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeswar, Chidi Kho, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Thivankot, Shikarya.
Tamia – Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve and Panna National Park in the Satapuda Range are three of the 18 Biosphere Reserves in India. Most of them are near Jabalpur in East Madhya Pradesh.
Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna and Satpura National Parks are managed as Project Tiger Areas. Chambal National Sanctuary is managed for the conservation of several species of gharials and crocodiles, river dolphins, smooth otters and turtles. Ken-Gharial and Son-Gharial Sanctuaries are managed for the conservation of Gharial and Mugar. Barasingh is the state animal and Dudharaj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.
Based on composition, teak and bark forests are the important forest formations in the state. Areas with bamboo are widely distributed.
Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya Range extending to its north and the Satpura Range to the south. Its tributaries include the Banjar, Tawa, Machna, Shakkar, Denwa and Sonbhadra rivers.
The Tapi flows parallel to the river Narmada and flows through a rift valley. The Narmada-Tapti system drains an enormous amount of water and provides drainage for nearly one-fourth of the land area of Madhya Pradesh. River Narmada is considered very sacred and is worshiped throughout the region. It is the main source of water and acts as a lifeline for the state.
The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganges basin, the western part of the Ganges basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganges. The main tributaries of the Yamuna are the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parvati, Kuno, Sindh, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers, all of which drain into the Ganges, flowing from south to north.
Shipra river is one of the most sacred rivers in Hinduism. It is the site of the Simhastha Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with natural vegetation consisting largely of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganga basin consists of the Son, Tons and Rihand rivers.
The Son, which originates in the Mackal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that flows into the southern Ganges and does not originate in the Himalayas.. The major monsoon flows into the Ganges are the Son and its tributaries, as the north bank tributaries are all snow-covered. Their valley forests are much richer than the thorn forests of northwestern Madhya Pradesh.