Meghalaya State Information

Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India. It is a hilly belt in the north-eastern part of the country. The state is adorned with beautiful blue hills and roaring waterfalls. It also has beautiful valleys dotted with towns and villages. The state capital Shillong is a beautiful city with many exotic tourist spots.

History of Meghalaya

The history of Meghalaya is associated with three major tribes living in the state for centuries. Khasis, Jaintis and Garos are the major inhabitants of the state of Meghalaya. According to legend, the Khasis were the earliest immigrants to the state. 

The Khasis crossed northern Myanmar into Assam. Khasi is the epitome of the Mon-Khmer language of South-East Asia. Then Khasis, Jaintis and Garos had their own kingdoms.

 The kingdoms of Khasi, Jainti and Garo came under British control in the 19th century. In 1765, the British arrived in Sylhet (now in Bangladesh). The Khasis used to go to Pandua on the border of Sylhet for trade. Bengal used to import limestone from the Khasi hills. Eventually the British started trading in limestone and increased contact with the Khasis.

In 1824 the Burmese invaded the Cachar and Jaintia hills. In the same year, a treaty of friendship was signed between the Jaintia Raja and the British to accept British protection. 

The Khasi chieftains allowed the British to pass through their territory. After the Burmese invasion ended, the British demanded a corridor through the Khasi and Jaintia hills to connect the Assam valley with the Surma valley.

When Meghalaya was annexed to Assam, people started a revolt to gain independence from the state of Assam. Freedom fighter Tirot Singh started an uprising but his uprising was suppressed. Many treaties were signed with the Khasi chiefs.

In 1862 the Jaintas revolted under the leadership of U Kiang Nongbah. The British eventually captured the resources of the Khasi Hills. They controlled the judiciary by suppressing the chiefs.

Meghalaya became an independent state on 21 January 1972, when it was carved out of two districts of Assam state – United Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills. Before attaining full statehood, Meghalaya was granted semi-autonomous status in 1970.

In 1971, Parliament passed the North-Eastern Territories (Reorganization) Act, 1971, which granted full statehood to the autonomous state of Meghalaya. Meghalaya attained statehood on 21 January 1972, with its own Legislative Assembly.

When Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal on 16 October 1905, Meghalaya became a part of the new province of ‘East Bengal and Assam’. However, when the partition was reversed in 1912, Meghalaya became a part of Assam province.

Important events in the history of Meghalaya

  • 1815 – Khasi states came under British rule.
  • 1835 – British annexed Meghalaya to Assam 
  • 1873 – British take control of Garo Hills 
  • 1874 – The province of Assam is formed, with Shillong as its capital
  • 1905 – Partition of Bengal and Meghalaya to form East Bengal and Assam
  • 1909 – Municipality established under the Bengal Municipalities Act
  • 1912- Meghalaya becomes a part of the province of Assam.
  • 1947 – India got independence
  • 1960 – Movement for a separate Hill State begins 
  • 1972 – Meghalaya got statehood 
  • 2013 – Meghalaya High Court established

Economy of Meghalaya

Agriculture is the major occupation of Meghalaya. Being an agrarian economy, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. However, even then, low productivity and precarious farming practices forced Meghalaya to depend on food imports. 

Meghalaya is rich in natural resources like limestone, coal, kaolin and granite. Meghalaya is a predominantly agriculture-based economy. Almost two-thirds of the total population of Meghalaya earns their living through it.

 But still the agriculture sector contributes only one-third to the state’s Net State Domestic Product (NSDP).

Agriculture in Meghalaya

Majority of the population in Meghalaya depends on agriculture for their livelihood. A variety of vegetables and fruits can be found in Meghalaya due to its pleasant climate. About 81% of people in Meghalaya depend on agriculture. Farmers in Meghalaya are adopting modern and improved farming methods.

 The use of plant protection measures, chemical fertilizers and high yielding (HYV) seeds of wheat, maize, rice etc. have increased the production of food grains. Mechanization of agriculture has increased to some extent.

Crops of Meghalaya

A variety of crops are grown in Meghalaya including:


Cereals form the staple food of the entire population of Meghalaya. Food grains include rice, maize, wheat, pulses.


Rapeseed and mustard are the most important oilseed crops grown in Meghalaya. Other oilseed crops include soybean, groundnut, sesame, linseed, castor and sunflower. Fiber crops  Cotton, Mesta and Jute are important fiber crops grown in the state. These crops are also the traditional cash crops of the Garo Hills.

Horticulture Crops Horticulture crops

in Meghalaya include: fruits, vegetables, tuber crops, cultivated crops, spices potatoes, ornamental plants, medicinal plants, indigenous plants, mushrooms.

Various agricultural schemes

The Government of Meghalaya has undertaken various schemes to develop the agricultural infrastructure of the state. Various schemes include:  Various agricultural schemes

  • Biocontrol Laboratory
  • Seed farming and production of pulses, cereals and oilseeds etc
  • Soil Survey of the State
  • Integrated Farming in Micro Watersheds
  • Training rural educated youth for self employment in agriculture based activities.(TREYSEFA)
  • Development of winter crops and arable land
  • Agricultural Educational Studies
  • letter delivery
  • Soil Testing Laboratory
  • Seed Testing Laboratory and Seed Certification
  • Special Development Program for Border Areas of Assam
  • Maize development from a cluster perspective
  • Plant protection with IPM
  • Farmers Training Institute
  • Agricultural Information Unit
  • state rice campaign
  • Basic Agricultural Training Centre
  • Jute Technology Mission
  • Agricultural Engineering (Mechanical)

Industry in Meghalaya

The level of industrialization in Meghalaya is low. But Meghalaya has a rich base of minerals like coal, limestone, sillimanite and granite, which can be really helpful in boosting the state’s trade and industry. 

People are engaged in small scale industries and manufacture of handicrafts and other household products. Meghalaya has limestone and cement factories. Meghalaya is also the center of horticulture and flori-culture industries where most people are engaged.

Geography of Meghalaya

The state of Meghalaya is situated in the north-eastern part of India. The state capital is Shillong which is at an altitude of 1496 meters. above sea level. Meghalaya is located between latitude 20° 1′ N & 26° 5′ N and longitude 85° 49′ E and 92° 52′ E.

The state is bounded on the north by Golpara, Kamrup and Nowgong districts of Assam on the east. through Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills districts in Assam and through southern and western Bangladesh. The total area of ​​the state is 22,429 sq. km and the total forest area is 8510 sq km. Shillong Peak is the highest point at 1965 meters above sea level.

Meghalaya is mainly covered with forests and one-third of the state is covered by forests. The state has ecoregions including montane forests and lowland tropical forests and sub-tropical forests. Forests are home to a wide variety of mammals, birds and plants. Shillong, the capital of Meghalaya, is a popular hill station in the northeast. Meghalaya covers a total area of ​​22,429 sq km and stretches about 300 km long (east-west) and 100 km wide.

Meghalaya State is also known as Meghalaya Plateau. The elevation of the plateau ranges from 150 meters to 1961 meters. In the center of the plateau are the Khasi Hills and the eastern part is surrounded by the Jaintia Hills. The highest point in the state is the Shillong peak with a height of 1961 meters. The Garo Hills surround the western part of the plateau. Meghalaya has mainly rain-fed seasonal rivers that create beautiful waterfalls and deep gorges in this beautiful valley. 

Weather in Meghalaya

The climate of Meghalaya is moderate but humid. Some parts of Meghalaya have an average annual rainfall of 1200. The best time to visit Meghalaya is from February to October.

Resources in Meghalaya

The state of Meghalaya is very rich in natural resources. Meghalaya is also blessed with rich flora and fauna. The state also includes an area covered by evergreen forests. Meghalaya is a storehouse of abundant natural resources and natural beauty. With high hills and beautiful valleys, caves and waterfalls adorning the state, it is rich in minerals, valuable forests, rich flora and fauna.

Mineral resources of Meghalaya

Meghalaya is a safe deposit of minerals. Coal, limestone, clay and sillimanite are the major minerals in the state. Other minerals include phosphorite, glass-sand, granite, quartz and feldspar, gypsum, base metals, gold, uranium and iron-ore. Coal and limestone are also exported to Bangladesh, earning good foreign exchange.

Forest Resources of Meghalaya

The total estimated forest area in the state is 8510 sq km. The state has very beautiful scenic areas with evergreen forests. Forests in Meghalaya are classified under tropical type and temperate type mainly based on altitude, rainfall and dominant species. The different types of forests found in Meghalaya are tropical moist and dry deciduous forests, tropical forests, tropical evergreen forests, tropical semi-evergreen forests, grasslands and savannas, temperate forests and sacred groves.

Meghalaya State Information

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